Development and validation of RP-HPLC method for glimepiride and its application for a novel self-nanoemulsifying powder (SNEP) formulation analysis and dissolution study
© Mohd et al.; licensee Springer. 2014
Received: 10 September 2013
Accepted: 25 February 2014
Published: 2 April 2014
There are many analytical methods available for estimation of glimepiride in biological samples and pharmaceutical preparations. To our knowledge, there is no specific reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method for estimation of glimepiride and its dissolution study in self-nanoemulsifying powder (SNEP) formulation.
A simple method was carried out on a 5-μm particle octadesyl silane (ODS) column (250 × 4.6 mm) with acetonitrile: 0.2 M phosphate buffer (pH = 7.4) 40:60 v/v as a mobile phase at a flow rate of 1 mL/min, and quantification was achieved at 228 nm using PDA detector.
The correlation coefficient (r2) was found to be 0.999 over the concentration range of 0.2 to 2 μg/mL for glimepiride. The method was validated for linearity, accuracy, and precision. The limit of detection and limit of quantification were found to be 0.38 and 1.17 μg/mL, respectively.
The proposed method was found to be simple, precise, suitable, and accurate for quantification of glimepiride as an alternative to the existing methods for the routine analysis of glimepiride in pharmaceutical formulations and in vitro dissolution studies.
Like other sulfonylureas, GLM acts as an insulin secretagogue (Davis ) lowering blood glucose by stimulating insulin secretions from functioning pancreatic beta cells and by inducing extra-pancreatic effects (increasing sensitivity of peripheral tissues to insulin) thereby decreasing the insulin resistance. GLM potentially binds to ATP-sensitive potassium channel receptors on the pancreatic beta cell surface, dropping potassium conductance across the membrane and causing depolarization of the membrane which stimulates calcium ion influx through voltage-sensitive calcium channels. This increase in intracellular calcium ion concentration induces the secretion of insulin. It can be employed for concomitant use with metformin, thiazolidinediones, alpha-glucosidase inhibitors and insulin for the treatment of noninsulin-dependent (type II) diabetes mellitus (Bell ). After oral administration, it is completely absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Severe hypoglycemic reactions with coma, seizure, or other neurological impairment are the possible toxic effects. Other side effects of sulfonylureas include nausea and vomiting, cholestatic jaundice, agranulocytosis, aplastic and hemolytic anemias, generalized hypersensitivity reactions, and rashes (Goodman and Gilman ).
Comprehensive literature survey revealed that quite a few diverse methods have been reported for qualitative and quantitative analysis of GLM in biological samples plasma/serum/urine and in pharmaceutical formulations containing single drug as well as in combination with other drugs. These include miceller electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEEC) with diode-array detection (DAD) or ultraviolet (UV) detection (Nunez et al. ; Roche et al. ), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with DAD (Drummer et al. ) and UV detection (Jingar et al. ) and derivate UV spectrometric detection (Altinoz and Tekeli ), using semi-micro bore high-performance liquid chromatography with column switching (Song et al. ), with pre-column derivatization (Lehr and Damm ), using monolithic column and flow program (El Deeb et al. ), HPLC-first derivative spectroscopy (Khan et al. ), reverse-phase high performance column chromatography (RP-HPLC, Sujatha et al. ; Wanjari and Gaikwad ), other HPLC methods (Kovaríkova et al. ; Lydia et al. ), liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS, Kim et al. [2004a, b]; Salem et al. ), liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LC-MS, Chang et al. ; Yuzuak et al. ), and other liquid chromatographic techniques (Pathare et al. ; Sukumar et al. ), thin layer chromatography (TLC) (Valentina et al. ; Gumieniczeka et al. ), polarographic determination (Ma et al. ), square-wave voltammetric technique (Suslu and Altinoz ). Methods have also been developed for the estimation of GLM in combination with other drugs simultaneously in pharmaceutical formulations by RP-HPLC techniques (Deepti et al. ; Ravi et al. ; El-Enany et al. ). From the literature survey, it was concluded that HPLC methods have been used most extensively for analysis of GLM (Bonfilio et al. ).
Most of the earlier methods are not ideal since they are time-consuming, have high limits of detections, use of surplus organic solvents, strenuous sample preparation, involve expensive instrumentation and long chromatographic run times. In recent years, dissolution studies have emerged in the pharmaceutical field as a very imperative tool based on the reality that for a drug to be absorbed and available to the systemic circulation, it must previously be solubilized. Consequently, the dissolution studies are used not only to evaluate batch-to-batch consistency of drug release from solid dosage forms, but also in several crucial stages of formulation development, for screening and proper assessment of different formulations. Moreover, the information obtained from in vitro dissolution studies has been used for the successful characterization of the in vivo behavior of drugs. To our knowledge, there is no specific RP-HPLC method for quantification and assessing dissolution rate profile for GLM in self-nanoemulsifying powder (SNEP) formulation.
The main purpose of the present work was to develop and validate a simple RP-HPLC method to be applied for the quantification and dissolution studies of GLM in SNEP formulation. The developed and validated method is rapid, reproducible with simple mobile phase, trouble-free sample preparation steps, improved sensitivity and a short chromatographic run time, which therefore serves as a tool for the quality control of pharmaceutical dosage forms.
Materials and methods
Glimepiride was a gift sample from Dr. Reddy's Laboratories Ltd, Hyderabad, India and was used without further purification. Amaryl® tablets containing 2 mg GLM as per labels claim (manufactured by Sun Pharmaceutical Industries, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India) were obtained from a local pharmacy. Methanol and acetonitrile of HPLC grade were procured from E. Merck Ltd., Mumbai, India. Sodium hydroxide, sodium dihydrogen phosphate, ortho phosphoric acid, TEA of AR grade, sesame oil, Tween® 20, PEG 400, and Aerosil® 200 were obtained from SD Fine Chemicals Ltd. Mumbai, India. Purified HPLC grade water was obtained by reverse osmosis and filtration through a Milli-Q® system (Millipore, Milford, MA, USA), and the same was used to prepare all solutions.
HPLC instrumentation and chromatographic conditions
The HPLC analysis was carried out on Shimadzu HPLC-LC-20 AD series binary gradient pump with Shimadzu SPD-M20A detector (Tokyo, Japan). The column used was Phenomenex Luna C18 (2) (250 × 4.6 mm) packed with 5 μm particles. The injection volume of sample 20 μL was used in all the experiments. In an isocratic mobile phase containing acetonitrile and 0.2 M phosphate buffer (pH 7.4), 40:60 (v/v) was pumped through the column with a flow rate of 1 mL/min and the quantification was achieved at 228 nm using PDA detector. The mobile phase was filtered through a 0.45-μm membrane filter and degassed before use.
Preparation of liquid self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system and self-nanoemulsifying powder formulation
The vehicle (sesame oil), surfactant (Tween® 20), and co-surfactants (PEG 400) were selected for the preparation of self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS). The formulation was prepared by dissolving GLM in the mixture of oil, surfactant, and co-surfactant accurately weighed in glass vials. Then, the components were mixed by gentle stirring and vortex mixing using vortex mixer (REMI CM 101DX, REMI Equipment, Mumbai, India) and heated at 50 °C in an isothermal water bath to obtain a homogenous isotropic mixture. The final formulation was inspected for signs of turbidity or phase separation and drug precipitation prior to self-emulsification. The formulation was stored at ambient temperature for further use. The simplest technique to convert liquid SNEDDS to SNEP is, by adsorption onto the surface of carriers. In the present study, Aerosil® 200 was used as an adsorption carrier. SNEP was prepared by mixing liquid SNEDDS containing GLM with Aerosil® 200 in 1:1 proportion. In brief, liquid SNEDDS was added drop wise over Aerosil® 200 contained in a broad porcelain dish. After each addition, mixture was homogenized using glass rod to ensure uniform distribution of formulation. Resultant damp mass was passed through sieve no. 120 and dried at ambient temperature. Then the dose-equivalent free-flow powder was filled into hard gelatin capsules and stored until further use.
Preparation of stock and standard solutions
A stock solution of 100 μg/mL was prepared by transferring 10 mg of GLM into a 100-mL volumetric flask; 30 mL of 0.1 N NaOH was added, and the mixture was sonicated to dissolve and the final volume of the solution was made up with HPLC grade methanol. The stock solution was protected from light using aluminum foil and aliquots of the standard stock solution of GLM were transferred using A-grade bulb pipettes into 10-mL volumetric flasks and the solutions were made up to volume with mobile phase to give final concentrations in the range of 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, 0.9, 1.2, 1.4, and 2 μg/mL.
The optimized chromatographic method was completely validated according to the procedures described in ICH guidelines Q2 (R1) for the validation of analytical methods.
Linearity and range
Standard stock solution was diluted to prepare solutions containing 0.2 to 2 μg/mL of the GLM. The solutions were injected in triplicate into the HPLC column, keeping the injection volume constant (20 μL).
Twenty microliters of the standard solution (1.2 μg/mL) was injected six times under optimized chromatographic conditions to evaluate the suitability of the system.
Three injections, of two different concentrations (1.2 and 1.4 μg/mL), were given on the same day and the values of percent relative standard deviation (%RSD) were calculated to determine intra-day precision. These studies were also repeated on different days to determine inter-day precision.
Accuracy was evaluated by fortifying a mixture of common excipient solutions with two known GLM reference standards. The recovery of the added drug was determined.
To ascertain specificity, a placebo solution was prepared using the same excipients as those are present in the marketed tablet without GLM. Placebo solution was injected into the HPLC system under the optimized test conditions and the chromatogram was recorded. Responses of the peaks were noted for any possible interferences of the excipient at the retention time of the GLM.
Limit of detection and limit of quantification
The limit of detection (LOD) is the lowest amount of analyte that can be detected in a sample, but not necessarily quantified, under the stated experimental conditions. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was identified as the lowest plasma concentration of the standard curve that could be quantified with acceptable accuracy, precision, and variability. They are determined by the signal-to-noise method.
For the analysis of marketed formulation Amaryl®, 20 tablets were accurately weighed and powdered. The powder equivalent to 1.0 mg of GLM was weighed accurately and transferred to a 10-mL volumetric flask containing 1.0 mL of 0.1 N NaOH. The mixture was sonicated to dissolve, made up the volume with methanol and filtered through a 0.45-μm membrane filter. Aliquots of this standard solution were transferred using A-grade bulb pipettes into 10-mL volumetric flasks, and the solutions were made up to volume with mobile phase to give final concentration of 10 μg/mL. The above solution was then analyzed for the content of GLM using the proposed method.
Dissolution release study of pure drug, marketed and SNEPS formulation
The dissolution studies of GLM-loaded SNEP formulation was performed in a USP-II dissolution test apparatus (DS 8000, LABINDIA, Mumbai, India). The dissolution studies were conducted according to the dissolution procedure recommended for single-entity products in 900 mL of 0.1 N HCl (75 rpm). The temperature of the cell was maintained at 37 ± 0.5 °C by using a thermostatic bath. At predetermined time intervals (0, 5, 10, 15, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min) an aliquot (5 mL) of the sample was withdrawn from each vessel and immediately replaced with an equal volume of fresh medium to maintain sink conditions. The samples collected were filtered through a membrane filter (0.45 μm) and further analyzed by HPLC. In order to obtain the dissolution profile, the cumulative percentage of drug released was plotted against time (min).
Results and discussion
Optimized chromatographic conditions
Stationary phase (column)
Phenomenex luna C1 (250 × 4.5 mm) packed with 5 μmparticles
Acetonitrile, 0.2 M phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) 40:60 (v/v)
Detection wave length (nm)
Run time (min)
Flow rate (mL/min)
Volume of injection loop (μL)
Glimepiride R t (min)
Linearity parameter for glimepiride
System suitability parameters
R t (min)
Reproducibility and precision data evaluated through intra-day and inter-day studies
Intra-day (n = 3)
Inter-day (n = 3)
Mean peak area ± SD (n = 3)
Mean peak area ± SD (n = 3)
95,187 ± 605
96,391 ± 426
112,849 ± 1,077
115,782 ± 1,121
165,844 ± 1,317
169,267 ± 541
Actual conc. (μg/mL)
Calculated conc. (μg/mL) ± SD (n = 3)
1.1983 ± 0.00153
1.403 ± 0.01058
Specificity and selectivity
Limit of detection and limit of quantification
Standard stock solutions of GLM (1 mg/mL) were prepared. Standard solutions of GLM (0.2, 0.4, 0.8, 0.9, 1.2, 1.4, and 2 μg/mL) were prepared by diluting the standard stock solutions with mobile phase. The LOD and LOQ GLM under the present chromatographic conditions were estimated at a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of 3:1 and 10:1 respectively, by injecting a series of diluted solutions with known concentrations. The LOD and LOQ for GLM were found to be 0.38 and 1.17 μg/mL, respectively.
System suitability parameters (variations)
%RSD peak area (n = 6)
Mean tailing factor (n = 6)
MeanR t (min) (n = 6)
Varied pH (±0.2%)
Mobile phase ratio (±20 v/v)
Assay of marketed tablets
Assay of GLM marketed tablets Amaryl® ( n = 3)
Label claim (mg/tab)
Mean estimated amt (mg)
%Label claim ± SD
99.75 ± 0.4712
100.24 ± 0.5234
100.32 ± 0.4372
In vitro dissolution study
A dissolution release study was carried out for liquid SNEDDS, SNEP of GLM, and marketed formulation Amaryl®. As evident from the drug release profiles, the % CDR of pure drug, liquid SNEDDS, SNEP and Amaryl® were 14.68 ± 3.88, 90.36 ± 3.74, 82.22 ± 7.32, and 87.3 ± 2.84, respectively at the 15th min. The results indicate instantaneous and remarkably higher and faster dissolution rate of GLM from SNEP, liquid SNEDDS, and marketed formulation compared to pure drug. The %CDR profile for liquid SNEDDS, SNEP of GLM, and Amaryl® are shown in Figure 6.
The proposed method was rapid, accurate, precise, and sensitive for the quantification of GLM from its pharmaceutical dosage forms. The method relies on the use of simple working procedure; hence, this method can be routinely employed in quality control for analysis of GLM in pharmaceutical dosage forms and dissolution studies.
The authors greatly acknowledge the receipt of pure GLM from Dr. Reddy's Laboratories Ltd, Hyderabad, India and are also thankful to Dr. P. Rajeshwar Reddy, Chairman, School of Pharmacy (Anurag Group of Institutions) Hyderabad for providing research facilities throughout the project work.
- Altinoz S, Tekeli D: Analysis of glimepiride by using derivative UV spectrophotometric method. J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 2001, 24(3):507–515. 10.1016/S0731-7085(00)00445-3View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bell DS: Practical Considerations and Guidelines for Dosing Sulfonylureas in Monotherapy or Combination Therapy. Clin Ther 2004, 26(11):1714–1727. 10.1016/j.clinthera.2004.10.014View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bonfilio Rudy MD, Araújo D, Benjamim M, Regina Nunes SH: A Review of Analytical Techniques for Determination of Glimepiride: Present and Perspectives. Ther. Drug Monit. 2010, 32(5):550–559. 10.1097/FTD.0b013e3181eea55aView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Davis SN: The Role of Glimepiride in the Effective Management of Type 2 Diabetes. J Diabetes Complicat. 2004, 18(6):367–376. 10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2004.07.001View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Deepti J, Surendra J, Deepak J, Maulik A: Simultaneous Estimation of Metformin Hydrochloride, Pioglitazone Hydrochloride, and Glimepiride by RP-HPLC in Tablet Formulation. J Chromatogr. Sci 2008, 46: 501–504. 10.1093/chromsci/46.6.501View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Drummer OH, Kotsos A, McIntyre IM: J. Anal. Toxicol.. 1993, 17: 225–229. 10.1093/jat/17.4.225View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- El Deeb S, Schepers U, Watzig H: Fast HPLC method for the determination of glimepiride, glibenclamide, and related substances using monolithic column and flow program. J Sep Sci. 2006, 29(11):1571–7. 10.1002/jssc.200600056View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- El-Enany NM, Abdelal AA, Belal FF, Itoh YI, Nakamura MN: Development and validation of a reversed phase-HPLC method for simultaneous determination of rosiglitazone and glimepiride in combined dosage forms and human plasma. Chem. Cent. J. 2012, 6(9):1–10.Google Scholar
- Manual of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. Mc Graw Hill, New York; 2008.Google Scholar
- Gumieniczeka A, Hopkałab H, Bereckab A: Ant diabetic Drugs: HPLC/TLC Determination. Encyclopedia of Chromatography. 2009.Google Scholar
- Jingar JN, Rajput SJ, Dasandi B, Rathnam S: Development and Validation of LC-UV for Simultaneous Estimation of Rosiglitazone and Glimepiride in Human Plasma. Chromatographia 2008, 67(11–12):951–955. 10.1365/s10337-008-0633-3View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Khan IU, Aslam F, Ashfaq M, Asghar MN: Determination of Glimepiride in Pharmaceutical Formulations Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography and First-Derivative Spectrophotometric Methods. J Anal. Chem. 2009, 64(2):171–175. 10.1134/S1061934809020130View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kim H, Chang KY, Lee HJ, Han SB: Determination of Glimepiride in Human Plasma by Liquid Chromatography-Electro spray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry. Bull. Korean Chem. Soc. 2004, 25(1):109–114. 10.5012/bkcs.2004.25.1.109View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kim H, Chang KY, Park CH, Jang MS, Lee JA, Lee HJ, Lee KR: Determination of Glimepiride in Human Plasma by LC-MS-MS and Comparison of Sample Preparation Methods for Glimepiride. Chromatographia 2004, 60(1–2):93–98.Google Scholar
- Kovaríkova P, Klimes J, Dohnal J, Tisovska L: HPLC study of glimepiride under hydrolytic stress conditions. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2004, 36(1):205–9. 10.1016/j.jpba.2004.05.005View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Langtry HD, Balfour JA: Glimepiride: A review of its use in the management of type 2 diabetics. Drugs 1998, 55: 563–84. 10.2165/00003495-199855040-00007View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lehr KH, Damm P: Simultaneous Determination of the Sulphonylurea Glimepiride and Its Metabolites in Human Serum and Urine by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography after Pre-Column Derivatization. J Chromatogr B 1990, 526(1):497–505. 10.1016/S0378-4347(00)82531-1View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lydia RK, Rita AD, Dolla KS, Chawki A, Antoine Z: A Simple and Sensitive Method for Determination of Glimepiride in Human Serum by HPLC. J of Liq. Chromatogr R T 2005, 28(20):3255–3263. 10.1080/10826070500330935View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ma HL, Xu MT, Qu P, Ma XH: Polarographic behavior and determination of glimepiride. Acta Pharmaceut. Se. 2005, 40(8):750–3.Google Scholar
- McCall AL: Clinical Review of Glimepiride. Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy 2001, 2(4):699–713. 10.1517/146565126.96.36.1999View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Nunez M, Ferguson JE, Machacek D, Jacob G, Oda RP, Lawson GM, Landers JP: Anal. Chem.. 1995, 67: 3668–3675. 10.1021/ac00116a009View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Pathare DB, Jadhav AS, Shingare MS: RP-LC Determination of the Cis-Isomer of Glimepiride in a Bulk Drug Substance. Chromatographia 2007, 66(7–8):639–641. 10.1365/s10337-007-0356-xView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ravi S, Gagan S, Darpan C, Jain PK: Analytical Method Development And Validation For The Simultaneous Estimation Of Pioglitazone And Glimepiride In Tablet Dosage Form By RP-HPLC. Int. J Pharm. Sci. Res. 2011, 2(3):637–642.Google Scholar
- Roche ME, Oda RP, Lawson GM, Landers JP: Capillary Electrophoretic Detection of Metabolites in the Urine of Patients Receiving Hypoglycemic Drug Therapy. Electrophoresis 1997, 18(10):1865–1874. 10.1002/elps.1150181024View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Rosenstock J, Samols E, Muchmore DB, Schneider J: Glimepiride, a New Once-Daily Sulfonylurea: A Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Study of NIDDM Patients. Diabetes Care 1996, 19(11):1194–1199. 10.2337/diacare.19.11.1194View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Salem II, Idrees J, Al Tamimi JI: Determination of Glimepiride in Human Plasma by Liquid Chromatography-Electro spray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2004, 799(1):103–9. 10.1016/j.jchromb.2003.10.024View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Song YK, Maeng JE, Hwang HR, Park JS, Kim BC, Kim JK, Kim CK: Determination of glimepiride in human plasma using semi-micro bore high performance liquid chromatography with column-switching. J Chromatogr B. 2004, 810(1):143–149. 10.1016/j.jchromb.2004.07.027View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sujatha S, Sandhya RT, Veeresham C: Determination of Glimepiride in Rat Serum by RP-HPLC Method. Am. J Anal. Chem. 2011, 2: 152–157. 10.4236/ajac.2011.22017View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Suslu I, Altinoz S: Determination of Glimepiride in Pharmaceutical Formulations by Square-Wave Voltammetric Method. Curr. Anal. Chem. 2011, 7(4):333–340. 10.2174/157341111797183056View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Valentina T, Slavica F, Gordana P, Katarina N, Danica A: TLC Determination Of Glimepiride And Its Main Impurities In Pharmaceuticals. J of Liq Chromatogr. R T 2013, 36(17):2422–2430.Google Scholar
- Wanjari DB, Gaikwad NJ: Reversed Phase HPLC Method for Determination of Glimepride in Tablet Dosage Form. Indian J Pharm sci 2005, 2(67):253–255.Google Scholar
- Yuzuak N, Ozden T, Eren S, Ozilhan S: Determination of Glimepiride in Human Plasma by LC-MS-MS. Chromatographia 2007, 66(1):165–168. 10.1365/s10337-007-0368-6View ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited.