Ahirwar S, Mallick S, Bahadur D. Electrochemical method to prepare graphene quantum dots and graphene oxide quantum dots. ACS Omega. 2017;2:8343–53.
Al-Hashimi B, Rahman HS, Omer KM. Highly luminescent and biocompatible P and N Co-doped passivated carbon nanodots for the sensitive and selective determination of rifampicin using the inner filter effect. Materials (basel). 2020;13:2275.
Ang WL, Boon Mee CAL, Sambudi NS, Mohammad AW, Leo CP, Mahmoudi E, Ba-Abbad M, Benamor A. Microwave-assisted conversion of palm kernel shell biomass waste to photoluminescent carbon dots. Sci Rep. 2020;10:1–15.
Ashritha MG, Rondiya SR, Cross RW, Dzade NY, Dhole SD, Hareesh K, Sunitha DV. Experimental and computational studies of sonochemical assisted anchoring of carbon quantum dots on reduced graphene oxide sheets towards the photocatalytic activity. Appl Surf Sci. 2021;545:148962.
Aziz SB, Abdullah OG, Brza MA, Azawy AK, Tahir DA. Effect of carbon nano-dots (CNDs) on structural and optical properties of PMMA polymer composite. Results Phys. 2019;15:102776.
Başoğlu A, Ocak Ü, Gümrükçüoğlu A. Synthesis of microwave-assisted fluorescence carbon quantum dots using roasted-chickpeas and its applications for sensitive and selective detection of Fe3+ ions. J Fluoresc. 2020;30:515–26.
Bian W, Wang X, Wang Y, Yang H, Huang J, Cai Z, Choi MMF. Boron and nitrogen co-doped carbon dots as a sensitive fluorescent probe for the detection of curcumin. Luminescence. 2018;33:174–80.
Chahal S, Yousefi N, Tufenkji N. Green synthesis of high quantum yield carbon dots from phenylalanine and citric acid: role of stoichiometry and nitrogen doping. ACS Sustain Chem Eng. 2020;8:5566–75.
Chandra S, Patra P, Pathan SH, Roy S, Mitra S, Layek A, Bhar R, Pramanik P, Goswami A. Luminescent S-doped carbon dots: an emergent architecture for multimodal applications. J Mater Chem B. 2013;1:2375–82.
Chang MMF, Ginjom IR, Ngu-Schwemlein M, Ng SM. Synthesis of yellow fluorescent carbon dots and their application to the determination of chromium(III) with selectivity improved by pH tuning. Microchim Acta. 2016;183:1899–907.
Chen YC, Lee IL, Sung YM, Wu SP. Triazole functionalized gold nanoparticles for colorimetric Cr3+ sensing. Sensors Actuators B Chem. 2013;188:354–9.
Dijken AV, Makkinje J, Meijerink A. The influence of particle size on the luminescence quantum efficiency of nanocrystalline ZnO particles. J Lumin. 2001;92:323–8.
Ding H, Li XH, Chen XB, Wei JS, Li XB, Xiong HM. Surface states of carbon dots and their influences on luminescence. J Appl Phys. 2020;127:231101.
Ding H, Wei JS, Xiong HM. Nitrogen and sulfur co-doped carbon dots with strong blue luminescQence. Nanoscale. 2014;6:13817–23.
Du F, Zhang M, Li X, Li J, Jiang X, Li Z, et al. Economical and green synthesis of bagasse-derived fluorescent carbon dots for biomedical applications. Nanotechnology. 2014;25:315702.
Elavarasi M, Alex SA, Chandrasekaran N, Mukherjee A. Simple fluorescence-based detection of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) using unmodified gold nanoparticles. Anal Methods. 2014;6:9554–60.
Farshbaf M, Davaran S, Rahimi F, Annabi N, Salehi R, Akbarzadeh A. Carbon quantum dots: recent progresses on synthesis, surface modification and applications. Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol. 2018;46:1331–48.
Feng J, Dong H, Pang B, Shao F, Zhang C, Yu L, Dong L. Theoretical study on the optical and electronic properties of graphene quantum dots doped with heteroatoms. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2018;20:15244–52.
Fernando KAS, Sahu S, Liu Y, Lewis WK, Guliants EA, Jafariyan A, Wang P, Bunker CE, Sun Y. Carbon quantum dots and applications in photocatalytic energy conversion. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2015;7:8363–76.
Ghanem A, Al-Qassar Bani Al-Marjeh R, Atassi Y. Novel nitrogen-doped carbon dots prepared under microwave-irradiation for highly sensitive detection of mercury ions. Heliyon. 2020;6:e03750.
Guan C, Zhan L, Yang X, Dai G, Xiao Y. Significant effect of vibration treatment on microwave curing carbon fiber reinforced plastic. J Reinf Plast Compos. 2020;39:373–83.
Gupta A, Nandi CK. PC12 live cell ultrasensitive neurotransmitter signaling using high quantum yield sulphur doped carbon dots and its extracellular Ca2+ ion dependence. Sensors Actuators, B Chem. 2017;245:137–45.
Huang L, Yang S, Chen L, Chen S. Hydrothermal synthesis of fluorescent carbon dots towards ion response and silk screen patterns. Chem Lett. 2015;44:1251–3.
Inui T, Abe W, Kitano M, Nakamura T. Determination of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in water by wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry after preconcentration with an ion-exchange resin disk. X-Ray Spectrom. 2011;40:301–5.
Issa MA, Abidin ZZ, Sobri S, Rashid SA, Mahdi MA, Ibrahim NA. Fluorescent recognition of Fe3+ in acidic environment by enhanced-quantum yield N-doped carbon dots: optimization of variables using central composite design. Sci Rep. 2020;10:1–19.
Jayaweera S, Yin K, Ng WJ. Nitrogen-doped durian shell derived carbon dots for inner filter effect mediated sensing of tetracycline and fluorescent ink. J Fluoresc. 2019;29:221–9.
Kang S, Jeong YK, Jung KH, Son Y, Kim WR, Ryu JH, Kim KM. One-step synthesis of sulfur-incorporated graphene quantum dots using pulsed laser ablation for enhancing optical properties. Opt Express. 2020;28:21659.
Karakoti AS, Shukla R, Shanker R, Singh S. Surface functionalization of quantum dots for biological applications. Adv Colloid Interface Sci. 2015;215:28–45.
Khan WU, Wang D, Zhang W, Tang Z, Ma X, Ding X, Du S, Wang Y. High quantum yield green-emitting carbon dots for Fe(III) detection, biocompatible fluorescent ink and cellular imaging. Sci Rep. 2017;7:1–9.
Lee HJ, Jana J, Chung JS, Hur SH. Uncovering the actual inner-filter effect between highly efficient carbon dots and nitroaromatics. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2020;236:118342.
Lei Y, Su Y, Huo J. A novel fluorescent sensor for Cr3+ based on rhodamine-cored poly (amidoamine) dendrimer. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2011;83:149–54.
Li Q, Yang D, Yang Y. Spectrofluorimetric determination of Cr(VI) and Cr(III) by quenching effect of Cr(III) based on the Cu-CDs with peroxidase-mimicking activity. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2021;244:118882.
Li HW, Mao JY, Lien CW, Wang CK, Lai JY, Mandal RP, Chang HT, Chang L, Ma DHK, Huang CC. Platinum ions mediate the interactions between DNA and carbon quantum dots: diagnosis of MRSA infections. J Mater Chem B. 2020;8:3506–12.
Liang P, Yang L, Hu B, Jiang Z. ICP-AES detection of ultratrace aluminum(III) and chromium(III) ions with a microcolumn preconcentration system using dynamically immobilized 8-hydroxyquinoline on TiO2 nanoparticles. Anal Sci. 2003;19:1167–71.
Lin SKC, Du C, Blaga AC, Camarut M, Webb C, Stevens CV, Soetaert W. Novel resin-based vacuum distillation-crystallisation method for recovery of succinic acid crystals from fermentation broths. Green Chem. 2010;12:666–7.
Lin H, Huang J, Ding L. Preparation of Carbon Dots with High-Fluorescence Quantum Yield and Their Application in Dopamine Fluorescence Probe and Cellular Imaging. J Nanomater. 2019;2019:1–9.
Liu Y, Jiang L, Li B, Fan X, Wang W, Liu P, Xu S, Luo X. Nitrogen doped carbon dots: Mechanism investigation and their application for label free CA125 analysis. J Mater Chem B. 2019;7:3053–8.
Lu H, Xu S, Liu J. One Pot Generation of Blue and Red Carbon Dots in One Binary Solvent System for Dual Channel Detection of Cr3+ and Pb2+ Based on Ion Imprinted Fluorescence Polymers. ACS Sensors. 2019;4:1917–24.
Madjene F, Assassi M, Chokri I, Enteghar T, Lebik H. Optimization of photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B using Box-Behnken experimental design: Mineralization and mechanism. Water Environ Res. 2021;93:112–22.
Madrakian T, Maleki S, Gilak S, Afkhami A. Turn-off fluorescence of amino-functionalized carbon quantum dots as effective fluorescent probes for determination of isotretinoin. Sensors Actuators, B Chem. 2017;247:428–35.
Misra SK, Srivastava I, Khamo JS, Krishnamurthy VV, Sar D, Schwartz-Duval AS, Soares JANT, Zhang K, Pan D. Carbon dots with induced surface oxidation permits imaging at single-particle level for intracellular studies. Nanoscale. 2018;10:18510–9.
Mitra T, Sailakshmi G, Gnanamani A, Mandal AB. Studies on cross-linking of succinic acid with chitosan/collagen. Mater Res. 2013;16:755–65.
Mousavi A, Zare-Dorabei R, Mosavi SH. A novel hybrid fluorescence probe sensor based on metal-organic framework@carbon quantum dots for the highly selective detection of 6-mercaptopurine. Anal Methods. 2020;12:5397–406.
Murugan N, Prakash M, Jayakumar M, Sundaramurthy A, Sundramoorthy AK. Green synthesis of fluorescent carbon quantum dots from Eleusine coracana and their application as a fluorescence ‘turn-off’ sensor probe for selective detection of Cu2+. Appl Surf Sci. 2019;476:468–80.
Nemati F, Hosseini M, Zare-Dorabei R, Salehnia F, Ganjali MR. Fluorescent turn on sensing of Caffeine in food sample based on sulfur-doped carbon quantum dots and optimization of process parameters through response surface methodology. Sensors Actuators, B Chem. 2018a;273:25–34.
Nemati F, Hosseini M, Zare-Dorabei R, Ganjali MR. Sensitive recognition of ethion in food samples using turn-on fluorescence N and S co-doped graphene quantum dots. Anal Methods. 2018b;10:1760–6.
Nemati F, Zare-Dorabei R, Hosseini M, Ganjali MR. Fluorescence turn-on sensing of thiamine based on Arginine – functionalized graphene quantum dots (Arg-GQDs): Central composite design for process optimization. Sensors Actuators, B Chem. 2018c;255:2078–85.
Ouyang Z, Lei Y, Chen Y, Zhang Z, Jiang Z, Hu J, Lin Y. Preparation and Specific Capacitance Properties of Sulfur, Nitrogen Co-Doped Graphene Quantum Dots. Nanoscale Res Lett. 2019;14:219.
Pakhira B, Ghosh M, Allam A, Sarkar S. Carbon nano onions cross the blood brain barrier†. RSC Adv. 2016;6:29779–82.
Panigrahi SK, Mishra AK. Inner filter effect in fluorescence spectroscopy: as a problem and as a solution. J Photochem Photobiol C Photochem Rev. 2019;41:100318.
Prabhakaran DC, Ramamurthy PC, Sivry Y, Subramanian S. Electrochemical detection of Cr(VI) and Cr(III) ions present in aqueous solutions using bio-modified carbon paste electrode: a voltammetric study. Int J Environ Anal Chem. 2020;00:1–21.
Prathumsuwan T, Jamnongsong S, Sampattavanich S, Paoprasert P. Preparation of carbon dots from succinic acid and glycerol as ferrous ion and hydrogen peroxide dual-mode sensors and for cell imaging. Opt Mater (amst). 2018;86:517–29.
Pudza MY, Abidin ZZ, Rashid SA, Yasin FM, Noor ASM, Issa MA. Eco-friendly sustainable fluorescent carbon dots for the adsorption of heavy metal ions in aqueous environment. Nanomaterials. 2020;10:315.
Saluja P, Sharma H, Kaur N, Singh N, Jang DO. Benzimidazole-based imine-linked chemosensor: Chromogenic sensor for Mg2+ and fluorescent sensor for Cr3+. Tetrahedron. 2012;68:2289–93.
Shahbazi N, Zare-Dorabei R. A novel “off-on” fluorescence nanosensor for sensitive determination of sulfide ions based on carbon quantum dots and gold nanoparticles: Central composite design optimization. Microchem J. 2019;145:996–1002.
Shaikh AF, Tamboli MS, Patil RH, Bhan A, Ambekar JD, Kale BB. Bioinspired carbon quantum dots: an antibiofilm agents. J Nanosci Nanotechnol. 2018;19:2339–45.
Si J, Wang H, Wu B, Wang G, Yang J, Huo Z, Tian T, Zhao X, Han S. Preparation of carbon dots with orange emission for Cr(Ш) detection and cellular imaging. Micro Nano Lett. 2021;16:58–63.
Sperling M, Xu S, Welz B. Determination of chromium(III) and chromium(VI) in water using flow injection on-line preconcentration with selective adsorption on activated alumina and flame atomic absorption spectrometric detection. Anal Chem. 1992;64:3101–8.
Sun C, Zhang Y, Wang P, Yang Y, Wang Y, Xu J, Yu WW. Synthesis of nitrogen and sulfur co-doped carbon dots from garlic for selective detection of Fe3+. Nanoscale Res Lett. 2016;11:1–9.
Tan C, Zuo S, Zhao Y, Shen B. Preparation of multicolored carbon quantum dots using HNO3/HClO4 oxidation of graphitized carbon. J Mater Res. 2019;1–11.
Tan X, Zhang P, Ye C, Min Y, Li Q, Wang Y. Signal-on photoluminescent detection of dopamine with carbon dots-MnO2 nanosheets platform based on inner filter effect. Dye Pigment. 2020;180:108515.
Thongpool V, Asanithi P, Limsuwan P. Synthesis of carbon particles using laser ablation in ethanol. Procedia Eng. 2012;32:1054–60.
Tumolo M, Ancona V, De Paola D, Losacco D, Campanale C, Massarelli C, Uricchio VF. Chromium pollution in European water, sources, health risk, and remediation strategies: An overview. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17:1–25.
Wang T, Wang A, Wang R, Liu Z, Sun Y, Shan G, Chen Y, Liu Y. Carbon dots with molecular fluorescence and their application as a “turn-off” fluorescent probe for ferricyanide detection. Sci Rep. 2019;9:1–9.
Xu S, Ye S, Xu Y, Liu F, Zhou Y, Yang Q, Peng H, Xiong H, Zhang Z. Microwave-assisted synthesis of n, s-co-carbon dots as switch-on fluorescent sensor for rapid and sensitive detection of ascorbic acid in processed fruit juice. Anal Sci. 2020;36:353–60.
Zan M, Rao L, Huang H, Xie W, Zhu D, Li L, Qie X, Guo S, Zhao X, Liu W, Dong W. A strong green fluorescent nanoprobe for highly sensitive and selective detection of nitrite ions based on phosphorus and nitrogen co-doped carbon quantum dots. Sensors Actuators B Chem. 2018;262:555–61.
Zhang HC, Guo YM. Advances of carbon quantum dots for fluorescence turn-on detection of reductive small biomolecules. Chinese J Anal Chem. 2021;49:14–23.
Zhang Y, Cui P, Zhang F, Feng X, Wang Y, Yang Y, Liu X. Fluorescent probes for “off-on” highly sensitive detection of Hg2+ and L-cysteine based on nitrogen-doped carbon dots. Talanta. 2016;152:288–300.
Zhang Z, Ye X, Liu Q, Liu Y, Liu R. Colorimetric detection of Cr3+ based on gold nanoparticles functionalized with 4-mercaptobenzoic acid. J Anal Sci Technol. 2020;11:0–6.
Zhao C, Jiao Y, Gao Z, Yang Y, Li H. N, S co-doped carbon dots for temperature probe and the detection of tetracycline based on the inner filter effect. J Photochem Photobiol A Chem. 2018;367:137–44.
Zheng J, Xie Y, Wei Y, Yang Y, Liu X, Chen Y, Xu B. An efficient synthesis and photoelectric properties of green carbon quantum dots with high fluorescent quantum yield. Nanomaterials. 2020;10:1–15.
Zhi B, Gallagher MJ, Frank BP, Lyons TY, Qiu TA, Da J, Mensch AC, Hamers RJ, Rosenzweig Z, Fairbrother DH, Haynes CL. Investigation of phosphorous doping effects on polymeric carbon dots: fluorescence, photostability, and environmental impact. Carbon. 2018;129:438–49.
Zuo J, Jiang T, Zhao X, Xiong X, Xiao S, Zhu Z. Preparation and application of fluorescent carbon dots. J Nanomater. 2015;2015:1–13.