- Open Access
ICH guideline practice: application of validated RP-HPLC-DAD method for determination of tapentadol hydrochloride in dosage form
© Jain and Basniwal; licensee Springer. 2013
- Received: 17 June 2013
- Accepted: 5 July 2013
- Published: 18 July 2013
Tapentadol is a novel centrally acting analgesic. There is no method for the determination of drug content in dosage form without any interference of any excipients and without using the diethylamine content in the mobile phase with UV detection.
A simple, precise, and accurate new reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method was developed and validated as per International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use guidelines to determine tapentadol hydrochloride in tablet dosage form. It was successfully eluted at 5.34 min by mixture of 0.1% formic acid in water and acetonitrile (75:25) on C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) at the flow of 1 ml/min.
Drug content was determined in between 99.79% and 100.33% with standard deviation of 0.217 without using dimethylamine with UV detection.
The validated RP-HPLC method may be successfully applied for assay, dissolution studies, bio-equivalence studies, as well as routine analysis in pharmaceutical industries.
- Tapentadol hydrochloride
Only few studies were conducted to determine TAP, viz. in urine (Coulter et al. 2010), in urine and oral fluid (Bourland et al. 2010) by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), and in canine plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with spectrofluorimetric detection (Giorgi et al. 2012b) and pharmacokinetic studies in dogs (Giorgi et al. 2012c). UV detection was performed in most pharmaceutical industries, while spectrofluorimetric detector is not widely applicable. Longer saturation time is needed when amino derivative (diethylamine or triethylamine) modifier is used as a component of mobile, which is not recommended for routine analysis of drug content in the pharmaceutical industry. It also causes bonus troubles during analysis such as erratic baselines and poor peak shape (Synder et al. 1997). In this context, very complex mobile phases were used for the separation of TAP such as phosphate buffer and triethylamine (Marathe et al. 2013), potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate and potassium hydroxide (Kathirvel et al. 2013), and phosphate buffer with glacial acetic acid and triethylamine (Sherikar and Mehta 2012). As we have experienced, the working range for HPLC methods is near 10 μg/ml, while the mentioned phases have very high working ranges at 75 to 300 μg/ml (Kathirvel et al. 2013) and 5 to 100 μg/ml (Sherikar and Mehta 2012).
Thus, there is still a gap in research work; there is no method for the determination of TAP in dosage form, which claims that there is no interference of any excipients in determination without using complex mobile phase and with higher sensitivity. The new reverse-phase HPLC (RP-HPLC) method was developed and validated as per International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH) guidelines without using diethylamine content in the mobile phase with DAD detection, which is simple, rapid, precise, and accurate for the determination of TAP in tablet dosage form.
Instrumentation and chromatograph
The HPLC chromatograph used was Agilent Infinity 1260 series (Agilent Technologies, Santa Clara, CA, USA) equipped with a 1260 binary pump VL (400 bar), 1260 manual injector (600 bar), Rheodyne 7725i seven-port sample injection valve with a 20-μl fixed loop, ZORBAX Eclipse Plus C18 (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm), 1260 DAD VL, 20-Hz detector, a standard flow cell (10 mm, 13 μl, and 120 bar; OpenLab CDS EZChrom Ed. Workstation), and 50-μl syringe (FN, LC tip). All weighing for analysis was performed on a Shimadzu electronic analytical balance AX-200 (Kyoto, Japan). Water used for analysis was prepared by triple distillation assembly. All dilutions, mobile phase and other solutions, used for the analysis were filtered through a 0.2-μm nylon filter (Ultipor®N66 Nylon 6,6 membrane, Pall Sciences, Pall India Pvt. Ltd. Mumbai, India).
Chemicals and reagent
The working standard used was TAP which was supplied by Ranbaxy Laboratories Limited, Gurgaon, Harayana, as a gift sample. Tablets of TAP (TRANSDOL 50, Lupin Ltd. Mumbai, India) were procured from the local market. Triple distilled water was prepared from distillation assembly. Formic acid and acetonitrile were procured from Merck Specialties Private Limited Mumbai, India. The mobile phase was prepared from the combination of formic acid (0.1%) and acetonitrile.
Accurately weighed 50 mg of TAP was dissolved in triple distilled water to prepare stock I (1,000 μg/ml) in 50-ml volumetric flask. Stock II (100 μg/ml) was prepared from stock I, which was used to prepare further dilutions containing 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, 1.2, 1.6, and 2 μg/ml. All dilutions were filtered through 0.2-μm nylon filter (Ultipor®N66 Nylon 6,6 membranes, Pall Sciences).
The filtered dilutions were chromatographed by the set of conditions on Agilent Infinity 1260 series. The mixture of 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile (75:25) was used as mobile phase for the elution of the drug on ZORBAX Eclipse Plus C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) at 1 ml/min of flow rate. TAP was successfully eluted at 5.8 min with a run time of 7 min, and detection was performed by photodiode array detector (PDA) at 272 nm.
According to the ICH guidelines (ICH Q2A 1994; ICH Q2B 1996), the developed method was validated to assure the reliability of the results of analysis for different parameters viz. linearity, range, accuracy, precision, robustness, ruggedness, limit of quantization (LOQ), limit of detection (LOD), and specificity. Linearity was determined by serial dilutions (0.2 to 2 μg/ml) of the TAP in distilled water in triplicates. The range of TAP was validated between 0.8 and 1.6 μg/ml with triplicates of dilutions. Accuracy was determined by recovery method by spiking the standard solution to the pre-analyzed samples. This procedure was repeated six times. Precision of the method was studied under the head of repeatability and intermediate precision. The six replicates of 0.8 μg/ml were chromatographed subsequently to assure the repeatability. Intermediate precision was determined by day-to-day analysis variation and analyst-to-analyst variation in the linearity range. Robustness of the method was studied with variation in temperature (20°C, 25°C, and 30°C) and content of formic acid (0.1%) in aqueous phase variation by a 5% change. Serial dilutions of TAP from 1 to 1,000 ng/ml were chromatographed, which was repeated three times to determine LOD and LOQ. Specificity was ascertained by degrading the drug sample in alkaline medium. Sample solution stability was demonstrated by analyzing six replicates of 0.8 μg/ml TAP standard samples at different time intervals (0, 12, 24, 36, and 48 h) with freshly prepared mobile phase on each time.
Analysis of dosage form
Powdered tablets were weighed equivalent to 50 mg of TAP and sonicated to dissolve drug content in triple distilled water. The sonicated solution was filtered through Whatman filter (no. 41), and different serial dilutions were prepared by subsequent dilution with triple distilled water. The dilutions were chromatographed, and percentages of drug content in tablets were determined by extrapolating the AUC values on regression line.
Optimization of chromatography
The RP-HPLC method was optimized with the objective of developing a simple, precise, accurate, and fast assay method for TAP. On the basis of chemistry and solubility of TAP, the initial mixture of water and acetonitrile (50:50) was made to elute TAP on C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) at the flow of 1 ml/min. The splitting of peak was observed, which indicates that the drug ionizes in the present mobile phase and the peak was highly broadened. Now, the pK a values (9.34 and 10.45) of the TAP have been taken into consideration to design the mobile phase (Synder et al. 1997), so the acidic pH should be favored to elute the drug in a single peak with an acceptable peak shape because in acidic pH, it should be present in nonionic form. Formic acid (0.1%) in water and acetonitrile (50:50) was run to elute TAP. The drug was eluted with a diluent peak which was splitting in nature. When aqueous content was decreased, more splitting was observed with diluent peaks, i.e., acidic content in the mobile phase should be increased. Thus, aqueous phase (acidic content) was increased to 70%; the single peak without splitting was observed which was near the diluent peak with acceptable peak shape but with tailing. Finally, TAP was better resolved from the diluent peak without splitting with acceptable peak shape (no tailing and fronting) in 0.1% formic acid in water and acetonitrile (75:25). Thus, we have excluded the use of amino derivative (diethylamine or triethylamine) as modifier of the mobile phase.
System suitability parameters
System suitability parameters for TAP
Value for TAP a
Number of theoretical plates
Linearity and range
Validation parameters of RP-HPLC method for TAP
Values a± SD, ± %RSD
0.2 to 2 μg/ml
AUC = 18,374.93× -62.59
r2 = 0.9998 ± 0.001, ± 0.100
2,377.778 ± 1.510, ± 0.063
0.8 to 1.6 μg/ml ± 1.23, ± 0.02
100.05 ± 0.841, ± 0.841
100.07 ± 0.319, ± 0.319
99.89 ± 0.205, ± 0.205
Analyst to analyst
99.74 ± 0.125, ± 0.125
Temperature (20°C, 25°C, 30°C)
100.21 ± 0.75, ± 0.748
Formic acid concentration (±5%)
100.12 ± 0.54, ± 0.539
8 ng/ml ± 0.93, ± 0.063
1 ng/ml ± 0.78, ± 0.067
Ascertained by analyzing standard drug and samples of equivalent concentration
Stability in sample solution
184.16 ± 1.83, ± 0.057
The accuracy of the method was ascertained by recovery method. When the method was used for extraction and subsequent analysis of the drug in the dosage form after spiking with 50%, 100%, and 150% of the drug, the recovery was 100.05% (99.7% to 100.9%).
The repeatability of sample injection and measurement of peak area were expressed as %RSD (Table 2). Repeatability and intermediate precision at three different concentrations (0.4, 0.6, and 0.8 μg/ml) for both within-day and day-to-day analysis were always <2%. These low values of the %RSD showed that the repeatability and intermediate precision of the method were within the acceptable value.
There was no significant change in the result of developed method, after the introduction of small deliberate changes in temperature (±5°C) and formic acid content in aqueous phase of the mobile phase (±5%). The standard deviation of peak areas was calculated for each set of conditions and was found to be <2% (Table 2). The low values of %RSD indicate that the method is robust.
LOQ and LOD
The developed method was highly sensitive to detect and determine the TAP content. The LOD for signal-to-noise ratio of 3:1 was 1 ng/ml (RSD ± 0.067%), and the LOQ for signal-to-noise ratio of 10:1 was 8 ng/ml (RSD ± 0.063%) (Table 2).
Result of assay of TAP dosage form
Concentration of tablet samples (μg/ml)
Concentration found (μg/ml)
Sample solution stability
The response ratio of all samples was averaged as 184.16 (Table 2). The standard deviation and percentage of relative standard deviation were found to be less than 2: 1.83 and 0.057, respectively.
Analysis of dosage form
TAP is freely water soluble, so drug content from tablet powder was extracted by triple distilled water. Sonication of drug powder with triple distilled water has better extraction compared to the shaking of solution. TAP content was determined between 99.79% and 100.33% with a standard deviation of 0.217. Error of standard deviation was far less than the unit which was favorable in consistency with the result of the method.
Hence, the new liquid chromatographic method in reverse phase was developed and validated; (Table 3) it was simple, fast, precise, and accurate without having to use diethylamine in the mobile phase and with UV detection. The method was successfully applied to determine the TAP content in tablet dosage form within acceptable limits and may be applied for assay, dissolution studies, bio-equivalence studies, as well as routine analysis in pharmaceutical industries.
One of the authors, Pawan Kumar Basniwal, earnestly indebted to Department of Science and Technology (DST), Government of India, New Delhi, for the financial support for this research work under Fast Track Scheme for Young Scientists. Authors are highly thankful to Head, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, RGPV, Bhopal and Principal, LBS College of Pharmacy, Jaipur for providing the experimental facilities for this research work.
- Bourland JA, Collins AA, Chester SA, Ramachandran S, Backer RC: Determination of tapentadol (Nucynta ® ) and N -desmethyltapentadol in authentic urine specimens by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. J Anal Toxicol 2010, 34: 450–457. 10.1093/jat/34.8.450View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Coulter C, Taruc M, Tuyay J, Moore C: Determination of tapentadol and its metabolite N -desmethyltapentadol in urine and oral fluid using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectral detection. J Anal Toxicol 2010, 34: 458–463. 10.1093/jat/34.8.458View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Giorgi M: Tramadol vs tapentadol: a new horizon in pain treatment? American J Animal Veterinary Sci 2012,7(1):7–11. 10.3844/ajavsp.2012.7.11View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Giorgi M, Meizler A, Mills PC: Pharmacokinetics of the novel atypical opioid tapentadol following oral and intravenous administration in dogs. Vet J 2012a, 194: 309–313. 10.1016/j.tvjl.2012.05.019View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Giorgi M, Meizler A, Mills PC: Quantification of tapentadol in canine plasma by HPLC with spectrofluorimetric detection: development and validation of a new methodology. J Pharm Biomed Ana 2012b, 67–68: 148–153.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- ICH Q2A Proceedings of the international conference on harmonization. In Harmonised tripartite guideline: text on validation of analytical procedures. Geneva; 1994.Google Scholar
- ICH Q2B Proceedings of the international conference on harmonization. In Harmonised tripartite guideline: validation of analytical procedures: methodology. Geneva; 1996.Google Scholar
- Jain D, Basniwal PK: Tapentadol, a novel analgesic: review of recent trends in synthesis, related substances, analytical methods, pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics. Bulletin Facult Pharmacy Cairo Univ 2013. 10.1016/j.bfopcu.2013.04.003Google Scholar
- Kathirvel S, Satyanarayana SV, Devalarao G: Application of a validated stability-indicating LC method for the simultaneous estimation of tapentadol and its process-related impurities in bulk and its dosage form. J Chem 2013, 2013: 927814.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Marathe GM, Patil PO, Patil DA, Patil GB, Bari SB: Stability indicating RP-HPLC method for the determination of tapentadol in bulk and in pharmaceutical dosage form. Int J ChemTech Res 2013,5(1):34–41.Google Scholar
- Schneider J, Jahnel U, Linz K: Neutral effects of the novel analgesic tapentadol on cardiac repolarization due to mixed ion channel inhibitory activities. Drug Dev Res 2010, 71: 197–208.Google Scholar
- Sherikar OD, Mehta PJ: Development and validation of RP- HPLC, UV-spectrometric and spectrophotometric method for estimation of tapentadol hydrochloride in bulk and in laboratory sample of tablet dosage form. J Chem Pharm Res 2012,4(9):4134–4140.Google Scholar
- Synder LR, Kirkland JJ, Glajch JL: Practical HPLC method development. 2nd edition. John Wiley & Sons, New York; 1997.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Vadivelu N, Timchenko A, Huang Y, Sinatra R: Tapentadol extended-release for treatment of chronic pain: a review. J Pain Res 2011, 4: 211–218.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wade WE, Spruill WJ: Tapentadol hydrochloride: a centrally acting oral analgesic. Clin Ther 2009,31(12):2804–2818. 10.1016/j.clinthera.2009.12.003View ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.