Kinetic spectrophotometric determination of an important pharmaceutical compound, pregabalin
© Najam et al.; licensee Springer. 2013
Received: 1 May 2013
Accepted: 29 October 2013
Published: 2 December 2013
Pregabalin (PGB), an anticonvulsant, was studied throughout this work using spectrophotometric method.
The spectrophotometric method is based on the condensation reaction of PGB with p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde (p DMAB) in acid medium. The condensation product showed λ max at 420 nm.
The different parameters affecting the stability of the condensation product were carefully studied and optimized. The calibration plots were constructed over the concentration range of 40 to 120 μg ml-1.
A simple, reliable, sensitive and accurate spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of an anticonvulsant drug, PGB. The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of the drug in dosage form. The high sensitivity of the proposed method allows determination of PGB in bulk and in pharmaceutical preparations.
The wide use of this drug has prompted many researches to develop sensitive and accurate analytical methods for its determination, especially for routine quality control in the analysis of pharmaceutical products. Several methods have been developed for the determination of the drug in pure and pharmaceutical preparations which are mostly based on chromatographic, spectrofluorimetric and spectrophotometric methods listed elsewhere (Bali and Gaur 2011). A detailed literature survey shows that few spectrophotometric methods have been developed for the determination of PGB in bulk and pharmaceutical preparation. A sensitive and selective spectrophotometric method, based on the reaction of the drug with 7-chloro-4-nitrobenzofuran, has been developed for the determination of PGB by Onal and Sagirli (2009). The relation between the absorbance of the reaction product at 460 nm and the concentration is rectilinear over the range 0.5 to 7.0 μg/ml. Gujral et al. (2009) developed a simple and sensitive method for the determination of PGB in bulk and pharmaceutical formulations. The method is based on the reaction of the drug with a mixture of potassium iodate and potassium iodide. The method is linear over the range 0.5 to 3.5 μg/ml. Onal (2009) developed three methods for the determination of PGB in pharmaceutical preparations. Two methods are based on the charge transfer complexation of the drug with 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone (DDQ) and 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ), and the third method was based on the reaction of ninhydrin with the primary amine group on the drug molecule. While the first two methods were linear over the concentration ranges of 2.0 to 30 and 1.5 to 10 μg/ml, respectively, the third method was linear over a much wider concentration range of 40 to 180 μg/ml. Two simple spectrophotometric methods for the quantitative estimation of PGB in bulk and pharmaceutical formulations were developed by Sowjanya et al. (2011). The first method is based on the condensation of PGB with 1,2-naphthaquinone-4-sulfonic acid sodium in alkaline medium, and the second method is based on the oxidation of 2,4-dinitrophenyhydrazine and the coupling of the oxidation product with the drug to give intensely coloured chromogen. The first method is linear over the concentration range of 5 to 45 μg/ml, and the second method is linear over the range of 50 to 450 μg/ml. Reddy (2013) developed a spectrophotometric method for determination of PGB in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form. The method is based on the reaction of PGB with DDQ to form red colour charge-transfer complex. Beer's law is obeyed in the concentration range of 50 to 250 μg/ml for the method. UV-visible spectroscopy is the technique of choice for the accurate and cost-effective determination of pharmaceutical compounds especially in third world countries. Consequently, there is scope for the development of simple and accurate spectrophotometric methods for the determination of pregabalin in bulk and pharmaceutical formulations.
In this study, p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde (p DMAB) has been used as a chromogenic agent for the determination of pregabalin. p DMAB possesses some peculiar structural features which account for its applicability in a wide range of reactions and processes. Its condensation reactions have been utilized for the spectrophotometric determination of many drugs (Adegoke and Umoh 2009; Adegoke and Nwoke 2008). An attempt has been made to develop a simple, accurate, rapid and economical method for determination of pregabalin in pure and pharmaceutical formulations. The method is based on the reaction of pregabalin with p DMAB in acidic medium. The method involves a one-step reaction, does not involve any extraction or heating steps and does not require any costly chemicals and equipment. The reaction is monitored spectrophotometrically, and the change in absorbance with time is measured at 420 nm.
A Systronics UV-visible spectrophotometer (model 118, Gujarat, India) with 1-cm matched quartz cells was used for the absorbance measurements. Shimadzu electronic balance (Kyoto, Japan) was used for weighing the samples.
All the chemicals and materials were of analytical grade and were purchased from Qualigens Fine Chemicals Pvt. Ltd. (Mumbai, India), and Deccan Fine Chemicals India Limited (Hyderabad, India). All the solutions were freshly prepared. PGB, AR grade, was purchased from Himedia Laboratories (Mumbai, India), and PGB 75 capsules (label amount 75 mg PGB/capsule) of various pharmaceutical manufactures were purchased from the market.
Preparation of the standard solutions
Stock solution of PGB (1,000 μg/ml) was prepared by dissolving 100 mg of drug in 10 ml of 0.5 M H2SO4 and diluting up to the mark by ethanol in a 100-ml calibrated flask. The stock solution was further diluted appropriately to get working concentrations. p DMAB (0.3% w/v) was made by dissolving 0.3 g in 100 ml of 0.5 M H2SO4.
Construction of calibration curve
To a set of 10-ml volumetric flasks, appropriate aliquots of the standard working solution were transferred to obtain concentrations in the range 40 to 120 μg ml-1 of PGB. Aliquots of standard solution of pregabalin were mixed with 2 ml of 0.3% p DMAB, and the contents were diluted up to 10 ml with ethanol and time was noted. The reaction mixture was rapidly transferred into a cuvette, and absorbance at 420 nm was recorded after every 5 min against the reagent blank prepared simultaneously in the same manner without the analyte. First, absorbance was taken exactly 5 min after mixing PGB and p DMAB solutions. The procedure was repeated for different concentrations of the drug solution, with a constant concentration of p DMAB solution. All the experiments are carried out at room temperature. The regression equations of calibration graphs were calculated using the method of least squares.
Assay of capsules
An accurately weighed portion of powder from tablets purchased from open market equivalent to 100 mg of PGB was put in a 100-ml volumetric flask containing 10 ml of H2SO4 and was diluted up to the mark using ethanol. It was shaken thoroughly for about 5 to 10 min, filtered through a Whatman paper to remove insoluble matter and used to prepare 1,000 μg/ml using ethanol for dilution. An aliquot of this solution was diluted with ethanol to obtain a required concentration (40 to 120 μg/ml). Then, to a solution of particular concentration, 2 ml of 0.3% p DMAB was added and gently shaken. The contents were diluted up to 10 ml with ethanol. The nominal content of the capsules was determined using the corresponding regression equations or the calibration graphs.
Results and discussions
Optimization of reaction conditions
Effect of acid concentration
Effect of pDMAB concentration
Reaction rate method
Thus, K′ = 0.00027, and the reaction is first order (n = 0.98) with respect to drug concentration.
Fixed time method
Regression equations for the reaction rate and fixed time methods for the determination of pregabalin
Reaction rate method
Rate = 2.8 × 10-4 + 2.48 × 10-4 × drug concentration
Fixed time method, time (min)
A = 0.00106 + 0.00123 × drug concentration
A = -0.0032 + 0.00111 × drug concentration
A = -0.0038 + 0.00103 × drug concentration
A = 0.0052 + 7.2 × 10-4 × drug concentration
A = 0.0036 + 6.4 × 10-4 × drug concentration
A = 0.0034 + 5.6 × 10-4 × drug concentration
A = 0.003 + 4.9 × 10-4 × drug concentration
A = 0.0032 + 4.4 × 10-4 × drug concentration
A = 0.0026 + 3.8 × 10-4 × drug concentration
A = 0.0046 + 2.9 × 10-4 × drug concentration
Validation of the proposed methods
Two different methods were tried to construct the calibration curves for the determination of the drug from the rate data, reaction rate method and fixed time method. The regression equations were calculated for every calibration curve. It is evident that in both methods, there is an excellent correlation between the analytical parameter and the concentration of the drug. The high correlation coefficients (r2) obtained for most of the calibration curves indicate high linearity in the range 40 to 120 μg/ml, and hence, these are suitable methods for the assay of the drug. The above methods were performed in the concentration range of 40 to 120 μg/ml. At higher concentrations, Beer's law is not obtained.
Precision and accuracy
Evaluation of accuracy and precision by the proposed method: determination of PGB in pharmaceutical preparations
Amount taken (μg/ml)
Amount a found (μg/ml)
Reaction rate method
Fixed time method, time (min)
The proposed methods are simple which preclude any use of harmful and costly solvents and reagents. p-Dimethylaminobenzaldehyde is a suitable reagent for the spectrophotometric determination of pregabalin. It is not only cheap and safe but also is available in any analytical laboratory with excellent shelf life. The procedure of the proposed methods is simple and time saving. No tedious procedures, extractions, heating and long standing times etc. are involved. The proposed method is sensitive, accurate and reproducible; requires simple apparatus for its performance; and consequently is suitable for routine quality control of the drug.
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