Skip to main content

Elemental and isotopic compositions in blank filters collecting atmospheric particulates

Abstract

Background

The atmospheric particulates can be harmful to human health due to toxic substances sorbed onto particulates. Although the atmospheric particulates have been collected using different types of filters, few studies have reported background contents of major and trace element, and isotopic compositions in the blank filters used for collecting the particulates yet. Here, we first report background contents of major and trace elements, and isotopic compositions (Zn and Pb isotopes) in the blank filters. Then, we evaluate the best type of filter for elemental and isotope analyses in the particulates.

Findings

The contents of major elements are the lowest in the PTFE filter and become higher in the order of the Nylon, NC, and GF filters, indicating that either PTFE and/or Nylon filters are the most suitable for major element analysis in the atmospheric particulates. Likewise, the contents of trace elements are the lowest in the PTFE filter and become much higher in the order of the Nylon, NC, and GF filters, indicating that PTFE filter is the most suitable for trace element analysis in the atmospheric particulates. Otherwise, background elemental contents result in overestimating their concentrations in the atmospheric particulates. All δ66ZnJMC-Lyon values in two GF filters are within those from samples of the Chinese deserts and of the Chinese Loess Plateau. Likewise, their 206Pb/204Pb ratios are similar with those of samples from Xi’an and Beijing, indicating that the GF filter is not suitable for Zn and Pb isotope study in the atmospheric particulates.

Conclusions

This study suggests that the PTFE filter is the most suitable for elemental and isotope study in the atmospheric particulates and that the GF filter cannot be used for source identification in the atmospheric particulates using Zn and Pb isotopes.

Introduction

Particulates in the atmosphere emitted from natural and anthropogenic sources can be harmful to human health, widely ranging from respiratory illnesses (NOx, SO2, PM2.5, and O3), to diminished delivery of oxygen to vital organs (CO), and to impaired cognitive and neurological capabilities (trace elements; e.g., Cd, As, and Pb) (WHO 2013; Guarnieri and Balmes 2014; Mason et al. 2014; Karri et al. 2016; Khaniabadi et al. 2017; Huang et al. 2018; Song et al. 2018; Santana et al. 2020). It has been known that any particulates finer than 10 μm, particularly those from finer than 2.5 μm (PM2.5), are potentially harmful because they are difficult to expel from lungs, and thus, they can accumulate in alveoli (Pope III et al. 2002; Laden et al. 2005; Downs et al. 2008; IARC 2012; WHO 2013). Especially, trace elements (e.g., Cd, Cr, and Ni) and metalloids (e.g., As and Sb) are often sorbed onto particulates, increasing the toxicity of the particulate (Csavina et al. 2012).

Traditionally, four types of filter material to collect the atmospheric particulate have been used, which are Teflon, quartz/glass fiber, mixed fiber, and membrane filter types, depending on variables such as metal content, artifact formation, and affinity for moisture (US EPA 1999). For example, quartz- and glass-fiber filters have been used for determining mass loading, cellulose filters for gas-absorbing compounds, and PTFE filters for trace elements and isotopes (Chow and Watson 2012; Ali 2016). Then, the filters are treated using various extraction methods in order to determine the contents of inorganic constituents and therefore to assess pollution status and metal impact on the environment. However, if the content of particulate is low and therefore contents of heavy metals are low, the contribution of heavy metals in the blank filter to those sorbed onto the particulates would be critical because background contents of trace elements result in overestimating their concentrations in the particulates. In spite of the importance of background elemental contents in the blank filter, there are only a few studies reporting them (Yang et al. 2002; Karthikeyan et al. 2006; Ali 2016). For example, Zn content in ZefluorTM filter is 261 mg/cm2 (Karthikeyan et al. 2006) and Cr content in quartz filter is 2538 mg/cm2 (Karthikeyan et al. 2006).

Furthermore, although elemental concentrations in the atmospheric particulates have been mainly used, variations in their isotope ratios are more powerful to determine the origin of atmospheric contaminants and to understand the transport pathways because stable isotopic compositions in the particulate generally reflect those in the sources. Recently, Zn and Pb isotopes have been used to identify each pollution source and estimate its contribution in the particulates (Dong et al. 2017; Souto-Oliveira et al. 2018, 2019). Likewise, it is also critical to evaluate stable isotopic compositions in the blank filters to prevent misunderstanding the source and overestimating the contribution of each source. Nonetheless, there is no study on isotopic compositions in the blank filter.

Here, we first report elemental and isotopic compositions (Zn and Pb isotopes) in blank filters commonly used for collecting the particulates in South Korea, and evaluate the best type of filter for elemental and isotope analyses in the particulates.

Materials and methods

Sample preparation

Detailed information on filters used in this study is given in Table 1. In short, we used both disk and square type filters because the former has been commonly used in high-volume sampling (~ 1700 L/min), while the latter has been used in low-volume sampling (16.7 L/min). Three polytetrafluoroethylenes (PTFEs; Nos. 17-19) and two Glass Fibers (GFs; Nos. 20-21) filters were square, while eleven nitrocellulose (NC), one Nylon, and four PTFE filters are disk type. All samples were stored in the desiccator maintaining 30 ± 5% of humidity and T = 25 °C for 24 h before the experiment. Although previous studies have used various extraction methods (e.g., a mixture of ultrapure acids; Yang et al. 2002; Karthikeyan et al. 2006; Ali 2016), we used 22% ultrapure aqua regia following the US EPA method (US EPA 1999). For the square type filters, we cut them into ~ 25 × 200 mm using ceramic scissors, placed in a 60 ml Teflon screw-cap vessel (Savillex Corp., USA), and reacted with 10 mL ultrapure 22% aqua regia on a hotplate at T = 180 °C for 24 h. Then, the supernatant was filtered through a 0.45-μm Nylon syringe filters (25 mm diameter, Whatman, USA), evaporated at T = 180 °C, and diluted to 10 mL ultrapure 2% HNO3. In case of the disk filters, whole filter was used and treated as the same way above. All samples were treated as triplicates.

Table 1 Mean major and trace elemental concentrations in the filters

Elemental analyses

Concentrations of elements were measured using a PerkinElmer Optima 7700DV ICP-AES at the Pukyong National University and an Agilent 7700 ICP-MS at the Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology (KIOST), respectively. Repeated analyses of a certified reference material (Trace Metals in Drinking Water; TMDW) yielded analytical uncertainties for most major and trace elements of within ± 10%, except Zn (27%) that is overestimated. (Table S1).

Isotope analyses

Information on element separation and isotope measurements is reported in Jeong et al. (2021). In short, pure Zn and Pb were separated using a Bio-Rad AG-MP1 resin (100–200 mesh, chloride form) and an Eichrom Pb-resin (100–200 mesh), respectively. All isotope ratios of Zn and Pb were measured using a Thermo Scientific Neptune Plus MC-ICP-MS at the KIOST. During the measurements, mass bias was corrected using a standard–sample bracketing (SSB) method where IRMM-3702 for Zn and NIST SRM 981 for Pb were used as isotopic standards. Zinc isotopic compositions are reported in delta notation relative to IRMM-3702, where δ66Zn = [(66Zn/64Zn)sample/(66Zn/64Zn)IRMM-3702–1] × 1000. The reproducibilities of Zn isotope measurements are better than ±0.02‰ for IRMM-3702 (n = 24, 2σ). The repeated analyses of NBS 981 (US National Bureau of Stands) yielded mean 206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb, and 208Pb/204Pb ratios of 16.935 ± 0.004 (2σ, n = 7), 15.485 ± 0.004 (2σ, n = 7), and 36.681 ± 0.001 (2σ, n = 7), respectively, in agreement with reported values (Todt et al. 1996).

Results and discussion

Major elements

All concentrations of major elements are reported in Table 1 and Fig. 1. Concentrations of major elements in the NC filters are quite variable, ranging from 0.01 mg/cm2 for Ti to 179 mg/cm2 for Na. Among major elements, Na is the most abundant with one order of magnitude higher than other elements. Interestingly, major element concentrations decrease as a diameter increases. For example, the mean Na concentration in a diameter 25 mm filter of 159 mg/cm2 decreases to 8 mg/cm2 in a diameter 90 mm filter. This is because the units in concentrations are mass per unit area. However, major element concentrations did not show any correlation with pore size. Although two previous studies reported major element concentrations in the cellulose filters are much variable than those in this study, it could be due to the different digestion methods that used a mixture of HNO3 + H2O2 + HF + H3BO3, and HNO3 + HF, respectively (Yang et al. 2002; Morton et al. 2013), instead of diluted aqua regia. For example, the former reported Fe content of 0.06 mg/cm2 and the latter Fe content of 18.87 mg/cm2, while this study yielded a mean Fe content of 0.58 mg/cm2. That is, large amounts of elements from the filter are attributed to both strong acidity and reactivity of acids.

Fig. 1
figure1

Concentrations of major and trace elements in the blank filters. ad Concentrations in the NC filters. ef Concentrations in the Nylon filter. g–j Concentrations in the PTFE filters. kl Concentrations in the GF filters

Concentrations of major elements in the Nylon filter are also variable, ranging from 123 μg/cm2 for K to 11.3 mg/cm2 for Ti. Compared to the NC filter, all major element concentrations are quite low. Although it is difficult to compare the Nylon filter to the NC filters due to a limited number of the Nylon filter, the results indicate that the Nylon filter contains much lower concentration than the NC filter with respect to the same diameter (i.e., 47 mm).

Concentrations of major elements in the PTFE filters are also variable depending on the type (i.e., disk vs. square types). The former displays concentrations ranging from 20.9 μg/cm2 for Ti to 620 μg/cm2 for Al, while the latter ranges from 8 μg/cm2 for K to 186 μg/cm2 for P. Compared to three different filters with a diameter 47 mm, the PTFE filter contains the lowest content of major elements than both the NC and Nylon filters. Although previous study reported the Teflon and ZefluorTM PTFE filters contained Fe contents of 12.1 and 499 mg/cm2, respectively (Karthikeyan et al. 2006), Fe content in this study is two orders of magnitude lower than them. It could be due to the difference in reagents used in two studies that Karthikeyan et al. (2006) used a mixture of ultrapure acids (HNO3 + H2O2 + HF) but this study used 22% aqua regia. That is, the discrepancy in both acidity and reactivity of acids causes a big difference in background elemental concentrations.

On the contrary, major element concentrations in the GF filters are much higher than those in the other filters, ranging from 2.5 mg/cm2 for Ti to 1107 mg/cm2 for Na, which are higher than one order of magnitude. Although previous study showed Fe content in a quartz filter is 1702 mg/cm2 (Karthikeyan et al. 2006), this study yielded that Fe content is about 100 times low (15.2 mg/cm2). Much high concentrations of Na, K, Ca, and Al in the GF filters could be attributed to the fact that the GF filters are manufactured from 100% borosilicate glass created by combining and melting boric oxide (B2O3), silica sand (SiO2), soda ash (Na2CO3), and alumina (US EPA 1979; Khan et al. 2015; Jones 2019).

In short, the contents of major elements are the lowest in the PTFE filter and become higher in the order of the Nylon, NC, and GF filters, indicating that either PTFE and/or Nylon filters are the most suitable for major element analysis in the atmospheric particulates. Otherwise, background contents of major elements result in overestimating their concentrations in the atmospheric particulates.

Trace elements

As shown in major elements, trace element concentrations in the NC filters are quite variable, ranging from 0.2 μg/cm2 for Cd to 783 μg/cm2 for Cr. Interestingly, among nine trace elements, three elements (Cr, Cu, and Zn) are much more concentrated than the other elements, which is consistent with a previous study that those three elements are much more enriched (Yang et al. 2002). Furthermore, trace element concentrations decrease with the increase in a diameter as shown in major elements. However, trace element concentrations did not show any correlation with pore size. The results indicate that the NC filter is not suitable for determining Cr, Cu, and Zn in the atmospheric particulates.

Likewise, concentrations of trace elements in the Nylon filter are also variable, ranging from < 0.1 μg/cm2 for As to 2693 μg/cm2 for Sb. Compared to the NC filter, although most of trace elements yield lower concentrations, concentrations of two elements (Mn and Sb) are much higher, indicating that the Nylon filter is not suitable for determining Mn and Sb in the atmospheric particulates.

On the contrary, concentrations of trace elements in the PTFE filters are much lower than both the NC and Nylon filters even concentrations are also variable, ranging from 0.01 μg/cm2 for Cd to 34 μg/cm2 for Zn. Among nine elements, only four elements (Zn, Cr, Mn, and Cu) are more concentrated with up to three order of magnitude high. Trace element concentrations also depend on the type (i.e., disk vs. square types). For four elements above, the former yields much higher concentrations, ranging from 21 μg/cm2 for Cu to 57 μg/cm2 for Zn, while the latter ranges from 1.3 μg/cm2 for Cu to 14 μg/cm2 for Cr. Compared to previous study for the Teflon and ZefluorTM PTFE filters (Karthikeyan et al. 2006), this study yields much lower concentrations in all elements which is probably due to the difference in acidity and reactivity of acids (a mixture of ultrapure acids versus diluted aqua regia).

The GF filters contain the highest concentrations relative to the other filters, ranging from 7.7 μg/cm2 for As to 526 mg/cm2 for Zn, which are higher than up to three order of magnitude for Zn. Higher concentrations of Zn, Cu, and Mn could be attributed to the impurities in either borosilicate glass and/or silica because previous study also reported the quartz filter digested with a mixture of HNO3 + H2O2 + HF contains high amounts of trace elements, ranging from 111 mg/cm2 for As to 1213 mg/cm2 for Zn (Karthikeyan et al. 2006).

In summary, the contents of trace elements are the lowest in the PTFE filter, and become higher in the order of the Nylon, NC, and GF filters, indicating that PTFE filter is the most suitable for trace element analysis in the atmospheric particulates. Otherwise, background contents of trace elements result in overestimating their concentrations in the atmospheric particulates.

Isotopes

Recently, multi-isotope (Zn and Pb isotopes) studies have been initiated to determine the origin of contamination source in aerosols and to evaluate the individual contribution of these pollution sources (Araújo et al. 2019; Souto-Oliveira et al. 2018, 2019; Schleicher et al. 2020). Although multi-isotope approach allows us to shed light on the origin and contribution of potential anthropogenic sources in the atmospheric particulates, there is a limitation to apply them due to little isotope data for potential anthropogenic sources.

Because three types of filters (NC, Nylon and PTFE) contain very low contents of Zn and Pb for isotope measurements, only GF filters were analyzed. The δ66ZnIRMM-3702 values of two GF filters (Nos. 20 and 21) are − 0.10 ± 0.02‰ (2σ, n = 12) and − 0.12 ± 0.02‰ (2σ, n = 12), respectively, indicating that two filters are identical in terms of Zn isotopes (Table 2). As converting δ-values relative to the Lyon standard (δ66ZnJMC-Lyon) using an equation of δ66ZnJMC-Lyon = δ66ZnIRMM-3702 + 0.29‰ (Schleicher et al. 2020), two GF filters yield δ66ZnJMC-Lyon values of + 0.19 ± 0.02‰ (2σ, n = 12) and + 0.17 ± 0.02‰ (2σ, n = 12), respectively. Because the δ66ZnJMC-Lyon values in the blank GF filters are within those from samples of the Chinese deserts ranging from + 0.07 to + 0.33‰, and of the Chinese Loess Plateau ranging from + 0.22 to + 0.49‰ (Schleicher et al. 2020), it should be cautious to use the GF filters for Zn isotope study.

Table 2 Zinc and Pb isotopic compositions of the GF filters

Likewise, the 206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb, and 208Pb/204Pb ratios of two GF filters are identical within errors (Table 2). Because the 206Pb/204Pb ratios of the Chinese Deserts range from 18.542 to 18.888, and in the Chinese Loess Plateau from 18.731 to 18.832 (Schleicher et al. 2020), it seems that the GF filter (206Pb/204Pb ratio of 18.044) can be used for Pb isotope study. However, the fact that the particulates collected from Xi’an and Beijing yielded the 206Pb/204Pb ratios of 18.031 and 18.129 (Schleicher et al. 2020) confirms the GF filter is not suitable for Pb isotope study in Korea.

Conclusions

Major and trace elements and Zn and Pb isotopes in four different types of blank filters collecting atmospheric particulates commonly used in South Korea were investigated in order to evaluate the best type of filter for elemental and isotope analyses in the atmospheric particulates. Concentrations of major elements are the lowest in the PTFE filter and increase in the order of the Nylon, NC, and GF filters. Likewise, trace element concentrations in the blank filters are the same order as shown in major elements. All results indicate that the PTFE filter is the most suitable for elemental and isotope analyses in the atmospheric particulates; otherwise, background contents result in overestimating their concentrations in the atmospheric particulates. Furthermore, Zinc and Pb isotope data measured in the GF filters indicate that the GF filter is not suitable for Zn and Pb isotope study in the atmospheric particulates.

Availability of data and materials

Upon reasonable request, the datasets of this study can be available from the corresponding authors (J.-S. Ryu, jongsikryu@pknu.ac.kr; Hye Jung Chang, almacore@kist.re.kr).

Abbreviations

ICP-AES:

Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy

ICP-MS:

Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

MC-ICP-MS:

Multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

References

  1. Ali AE. Studies on The appropriate type of filter sampling to analyze the atmospheric trace element using three analytical methods. Int J Adv Res. 2016;4(3):552–9.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Araújo DF, Ponzevera E, Briant N, Knoery J, Bruzac S, Sireau T, et al. Copper, zinc and lead isotope signatures of sediments from a Mediterranean coastal bay impacted by naval activities and urban sources. Appl Geochem. 2019;111:104440. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeochem.2019.104440.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Chow JC, Watson JG. Chemical Analyses of Particle Filter Deposits. In: Ruzer L, Harley NH, editors. Aerosols handbook: measurement, dosimetry, and health effects, 2. New York: CRC Press/Taylor & Francis; 2012. p. 177–202.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Csavina J, Field J, Taylor MP, Gao S, Landázuri A, Betterton EA, et al. A review on the importance of metals and metalloids in atmospheric dust and aerosol from mining operations. Sc Total Environ. 2012;433:58–73. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.06.013.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Dong S, Gonzalez RO, Harrison RM, Green D, North R, Fowler G, et al. Isotopic signatures suggest important contributions from recycled gasoline, road dust and non-exhaust traffic sources for copper, zinc and lead in PM10 in London, United Kingdom. Atmospheric Environ. 2017;165:88–98. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2017.06.020.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Downs SH, Schindler C, Sally Liu L-J, Keidel D, Bayer-Oglesby L, Brutsche MH, et al. Reduced exposure to PM 10 and Attenuated Age-Related Decline in Lung Function. N Engl J Med. 2008;357:2338–47.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Guarnieri M, Balmes JR. Outdoor air pollution and asthma. Lancet. 2014;383(9928):1581–92. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60617-6.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  8. Huang J, Li G, Xu G, Qian X, Zhao Y, Pan X, et al. The burden of ozone pollution on years of life lost from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in a city of Yangtze River Delta, China. Environ Pollut. 2018;242(Pt B):1266–73. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2018.08.021.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. International Agency for Research on Cancer (2012) Arsenic, metals, fibres, and dusts. 100C.

  10. Jeong H, Ra K, Choi JY. Copper, zinc and lead isotopic compositions of various geological and biological reference materials. Geostandards Geoanal Res. 2021. https://doi.org/10.1111/ggr.12379.

  11. Jones FR (2019) The structure and properties of glass fibres. 307-352.

  12. Karri V, Schuhmacher M, Kumar V. Heavy metals (Pb, Cd, As and MeHg) as risk factors for cognitive dysfunction: a general review of metal mixture mechanism in brain. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2016;48:203–13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.etap.2016.09.016.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  13. Karthikeyan S, Joshi UM, Balasubramanian R. Microwave assisted sample preparation for determining water-soluble fraction of trace elements in urban airborne particulate matter: evaluation of bioavailability. Anal Chim Acta. 2006;576(1):23–30. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2006.05.051.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. Khan MS, Shahzadi P, Alam S, Javed K, Shaheen F, Naqvi J, et al. Development of heat resistant borosilicate glass doped with sodium silico fluoride compound. J Chem Mater Res. 2015;4(1):13–8.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. Khaniabadi YO, Hopke PK, Goudarzicc G, Daryanooshe SM, Jourvande M, Basirie H. Cardiopulmonary mortality and COPD attributed to ambient ozone. Environ Res. 2017;152:336–41. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2016.10.008.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  16. Laden F, Schwartz J, Speizer FE, Dockery DW. Reduction in fine particulate air pollution and mortality. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2005;173:667–72.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Mason LH, Harp JP, Han DY. Pb neurotoxicity: neuropsychological effects of lead toxicity. BioMed Res Int. 2014;840547:8.

    Google Scholar 

  18. Morton PL, Landing WM, Hsu SC, Milne A, Aguilar-Islas AM, Baker AR, et al. Methods for the sampling and analysis of marine aerosols: results from the 2008 GEOTRACES aerosol intercalibration experiment. Limnol Oceanography. 2013;11:62–78.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. Pope CA III, Burnett RT, Thun MJ, Calle EE, Krewski D, Ito K, et al. Lung cancer, cardiopulmonary mortality, and long-term exposure to fine particulate air pollution. J Am Med Assoc. 2002;287(9):1132–41. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.287.9.1132.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Santana JCC, Miranda AC, Yamamura CLK, Filho SCS, Tambourgi EB, Ho LL, et al. Effects of air pollution on human health and costs: current situation in São Paulo, Brazil. Sustainability. 2020;12(12):4875. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12124875.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Schleicher NJ, Dong S, Packman H, Little SH, Gonzalez RO, Najorka J, et al. A global assessment of copper, zinc, and lead isotopes in mineral dust sources and aerosols. Front Sci. 2020;8. https://doi.org/10.3389/feart.2020.00167.

  22. Song J, Lu M, Zheng L, Liu Y, Xu P, Li Y, et al. Acute effects of ambient air pollution on outpatient children with respiratory diseases in Shijiazhuang, China. BMC Pulmonary Med. 2018;18(1):150. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12890-018-0716-3.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Souto-Oliveira CE, Babinski M, Araújo DF, Andrade MF. Multi-isotopic fingerprints (Pb, Zn, Cu) applied for urban aerosol source apportionment and discrimination. Sci Total Environ. 2018;626:1350–66. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.01.192.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  24. Souto-Oliveira CE, Babinski M, Araújo DF, Weiss DJ, Ruiz IR. Multi-isotope approach of Pb, Cu and Zn in urban aerosols and anthropogenic sources improves tracing of the atmospheric pollutant sources in megacities. Atmospheric Environ. 2019;198:427–37. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2018.11.007.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Todt W, Cliff RA, Hanser A, Hofmann AW. Evaluation of a 202Pb-205Pb double spike for high-precision lead isotope analysis. Geophys Monograph. 1996;95:429–37.

    Google Scholar 

  26. US Environmental Protection Agency (1979) Summary report on emissions from the glass manufacturing industry. EPA-600, 2-79-101.

  27. US Environmental Protection Agency (1999) Compendium of methods for the determination of inorganic compounds in ambient air. EPA-625, R-96-010a.

  28. World Health Organization. Health effects of particulate matter, WHO Regional Office for Europe. Denmark: Copenhagen; 2013.

    Google Scholar 

  29. Yang KX, Swami K, Husain L. Determination of trace metals in atmospheric aerosols with a heavy matrix of cellulose by microwave digestion-inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. Spectrochim Acta, Part B. 2002;57(1):73–84. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0584-8547(01)00354-8.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Funding

This work was supported by the KIST Institutional Program (Atmospheric Environment Research Program, Project No. 2E31292-21-069) and partly supported by the Pukyong National University Research Fund in C-D-2019-1040.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

J.-S.R. and H.J.C designed the study and led the writing of the manuscript. J.L wrote the first draft and conducted sample preparation and chemical analyses. S.J and J.K conducted sample preparation. H.J and K.R conducted isotope analyses. All authors contributed equally to the data interpretation. The authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Jong-Sik Ryu or Hye Jung Chang.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

All authors declare no competing financial and/or nonfinancial interests in relation to the work described.

Additional information

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Supplementary Information

Additional file 1: Table S1.

Concentrations of major and trace elements of reference material, TMDW.

Rights and permissions

Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Lee, J., Ryu, JS., Jeong, S. et al. Elemental and isotopic compositions in blank filters collecting atmospheric particulates. J Anal Sci Technol 12, 27 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1186/s40543-021-00279-1

Download citation

Keywords

  • Atmospheric particulate
  • Blank filter
  • Major and trace elements
  • Zn isotopes
  • Pb isotopes