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Table 1 Evaluation for the detection of Pb2+, Fe3+, and Mn2+ ion using GSH CD-agarose hydrogel film with various other established methods

From: Glutathione-capped Syzygium cumini carbon dot-amalgamated agarose hydrogel film for naked-eye detection of heavy metal ions

MethodProbeLinear range (μM)LOD (μM)References
Pb2+
 ElectrochemicalAu interdigitated electrodes0.01–0.10.00661Cui et al. 2016
 Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoringAu NP; AT-cut Au-coated quartz crystal0.046–30.014Teh et al. 2014
 FluorescenceGQDs and Au NPs0.05–40.0167Niu et al. 2018
 Colorimetricl-tyrosine Ag NPs0.016–0.10.016Annadhasan et al. 2014
 FluorescencePGA66–2610.098Hu and Elioff 2018
Colorimetric- hydrogel filmGSH CD-agarose hydrogel film5.0–751.3Present method
Fe3+
 FluorescenceGQDs3.5–6701.6Zhang et al. 2019
 FluorescenceS-doped C-dots1.0–5000.1Xu et al. 2015
 FluorescenceS-doped CQDs100–10000.177Wu et al. 2018
 FluorescenceCranberry bean-derived CDs30–6009.55Zulfajri et al. 2019
 FluorescenceCitric acid and (NH4)2HPO4 CDs20–20020Chandra et al. 2016
FluorescenceAA and EDA CDs0–5010.98Liu et al. 2015
Colorimetric hydrogel filmGSH CD-agarose hydrogel film7.5–1002.5Present method
Mn2+
 Colorimetric4-MBA and MA-modified Ag NPs0.5–100.05Zhou et al. 2012
 Colorimetricl-tyrosine Ag NPs0.016–0.50.016Annadhasan et al. 2014
 Photoirradiation CSVNH2-MIL-125(Ti)/CPE0.01–100.004Xu et al. 2014
 FluorescenceCMC/Tb(III) nanocomposite0.1–1000.046Ye et al. 2018
 Colorimetricβ-Cyclodextrin Ag NPs1.0–10000.5Hu et al. 2014
Colorimetric hydrogel filmGSH CD-agarose hydrogel film7.5–1002.1Present method