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Table 1 Experimental design using L9 (3^4)-Taguchi orthogonal array

From: Application of orthogonal optimization and feedforward backpropagation model in the microwave extraction of natural antioxidants from tropical white pepper

Run Uncoded control factors I (%) A (μg/mL) Estimated
  x 1 x 2 x 3 x 4    S/N ratio
1 60 250 0.105 6 54.86 ± 0.06 109.46 ± 0.12 34.7851
2 60 300 0.154 8 54.21 ± 0.30 107.51 ± 0.03 34.6816
3 60 350 0.300 10 57.57 ± 0.62 117.60 ± 0.03 35.2039
4 90 250 0.154 10 71.32 ± 0.38 158.89 ± 0.01 37.0642
5 90 300 0.300 6 76.82 ± 0.23 175.41 ± 0.04 37.7095
6 90 350 0.105 8 74.58 ± 0.02 168.68 ± 0.11 37.4524
7 120 250 0.300 8 75.14 ± 0.11 170.36 ± 0.02 37.5174
8* 120 300 0.105 10 91.02 ± 0.15* 218.05 ± 0.03* 39.1827
9 120 350 0.154 6 89.07 ± 0.04 212.19 ± 0.43 38.9946
  1. Mean ± SD (n = 3)
  2. x1 irradiation time (min), x2 microwave power level (W), x3 feed particle size (mm), x4 liquid-to-solvent ratio (mL/g), I inhibition (%), A antioxidant activity (μg/mL)
  3. *Optimum trial