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Table 2 Summary of the assays described in the manuscript

From: Methods available to assess therapeutic potential of fibrinolytic enzymes of microbial origin: a review

In vitro assays

Characteristics

 Anticoagulant and thrombolytic activity

• Tests the anticoagulant and thrombolytic ability of a test compound

• Simpler assay

 CloFAL

• Periodic quantitative measurement (turbidity) of clot lysis

• Analytically sensitive to the components of coagulation and fibrinolytic systems and to physiological changes in haemostasis

• Inability to detect mild deficiency in factor VIII

 Euglobulin clot lysis assay

• Measures fibrinolysis within the euglobulin fraction

• rapid and sensitive method

 Anti-platelet aggregation activity

• Tests the inhibition or reduction of platelet aggregation in vitro

• Simplicity and ease of use

• Does not reflect the platelet function in vivo at all times

• Variation in the result obtained due to sample ageing

• Interference of other substances with the result

• Loss of platelets during PRP preparation

 TEG

• Measures the viscoelastic properties of the clot

• Sensitive to the changes in the fibrin polymerisation and platelet count

• Identifies the unpredictable changes in coagulability during sepsis and disseminated intravascular coagulation

• High cost of the equipment

In vivo assays

Characteristics

d-Dimer test

• Monitors fibrinolysis with the help of cross-linked d-dimer domains

• Helps to assess the duration of anticoagulation therapy

• Varies with respect to the types of d-dimer unit

• Not applicable for fibrinogenolysis

 Ferric chloride-induced thrombosis model

• Topical application of ferric chloride leading to vascular wall injury

• thrombus formation closest to that in human pathological condition

• Sensitive to various thrombin inhibitors

• Must be combined with other assays to diagnose/treat DVT

 Carrageenan-induced thrombosis model

• Formation of wine coloured thrombus on injecting carrageenan

• Simplicity and reproducibility

 Rat groin flap model

• Vessel wall stimulating using bipolar stimulating electrode

• LDPM employed to monitor blood flow

• Short length of the pedicle serves as drawback

 Phytochemical injury

• Photo excitation oxidative damage of the vessel wall

• Increased phytochemical efficacy

• Lower systemic toxicity

 Laser-induced injury

• Thrombosis is induced through heat damage

• Complete denudation of endothelium